Wow, two posts just a few days apart from each other! Today I am writing about
L7Spy, the application from the SnabbWall suite used
to analyze network traffic and detect which applications they belong to.
SnabbWall is being developed at Igalia with
sponsorship from the NLnet Foundation. (Thanks!)
There are two things related to
L7Spy I want to mention beforehand:
nDPI 1.8 is Now Supported
The changes from the [recently released][ljndpi0.3.3]
ljndpi v0.3.3 have been
merged into the SnabbWall repository, which means that now it also supports
using version 1.8 of the nDPI library.
Snabb follows a monthly release schedule. Initially, I thought it would be better to do all the development for SnabbWall starting from a given Snabb release, and incorporate the changes from upstream later on, after the first one of SnabbWall is done. I noticed how it might end up being difficult to rebase SnabbWall on top of the changes accumulated from the upstream repository, and switched to the following scheme:
- The branch containing the most up-to-date development code is always in the
- Whenever a new Snabb version is released, changes are merged from the upstream repository using its corresponding release tag.
- When a SnabbWall release is done, it tagged from current contents of the
snabbwallbranch, which means it is automatically based on the latest Snabb release.
- If a released version needs fixing, a maintenance branch
snabbwall-vX.Yfor it is created from the release tag. Patches have to be backported or purposedfully made for that this new branch.
This approach reduces the burden of keeping up with changes in Snabb, while still allowing to make bugfix releases of any SnabbWall version when needed.
L7Spy is a Snabb application, and as such it can be reused in your own
application networks. It is made to be connected in a few different ways,
which should allow for painless integration. The application has two
bidirectional endpoints called south and north:
Packets entering one of the ends are forwarded unmodified to the other end, in both directions, and they are scanned as they pass through the application.
The only mandatory connection is the receiving side of either south or
north: this allows for using
L7Spy as a “kitchen sink”, swallowing the
scanned packets without sending them anywhere. As an example, this can be
used to connect a RawSocket
L7Spy, attach the
RawSocket to an existing network interface, and do
passive analysis of the traffic passing through that interface:
If you swap the
RawSocket application with the one driving Intel
NICs, and divert
a copy of packets passing through your firewall towards the NIC, you would be
doing essentially the same but at lightning speed and moving the load of
packet analysis to a separate machine. Add a bit more of smarts on top, and
this kind of setup would already look like a standalone Intrusion Detection
While implementing the
L7Spy application, the
snabb wall command has also
come to life. Like all the other Snabb programs, the
wall command is built
snabb executable, and it has subcommands itself:
aperez@hikari ~/snabb/src % sudo ./snabb wall [sudo] password for aperez: Usage: snabb wall <subcommand> <arguments...> snabb wall --help Available subcommands: spy Analyze traffic and report statistics Use --help for per-command usage. Example: snabb wall spy --help aperez@hikari ~/snabb/src %
For the moment being, only the
spy subcommand is provided: it exercises the
L7Spy application by feeding into it packets captured from one of the
supported sources. It can work in batch mode —the default—, which is useful
to analyze a static pcap file. The
following example analyzes the full contents of the
pcap file, reporting at
the end all the traffic flows detected:
aperez@hikari ~/snabb/src % sudo ./snabb wall spy \ pcap program/wall/tests/data/EmergeSync.cap 0xfffffffff19ba8be 18p 188.8.131.52:21769 - 192.168.1.2:26883 RSYNC 0xffffffffc6f96d0f 4538p 184.108.40.206:22025 - 192.168.1.2:26883 RSYNC aperez@hikari ~/snabb/src %
Two flows are identified, which correspond to two different connections
between the client with IPv4 address
220.127.116.11 (from two different
ports) to the server with address
192.168.1.2. Both flows are correctly
identified as belonging to the rsync
application. Notice how the application is properly detected even though the
rsync daemon is running in port
26883 which is a non-standard one for
this kind of service.
It is also possible to ingest traffic directly from a network interface in
live mode. Apart from the drivers for Intel
included with Snabb (selectable using the
there are two hardware-independent sources for TAP
tap) and RAW sockets
raw). Let’s use a RAW socket to sniff a copy of every packet which passes
through the a kernel-managed network interface, while opening a well known
search engine in a browser using their
aperez@hikari ~/snabb/src % sudo ./snabb wall spy --live eth0 ... 0x77becdcb 2p 192.168.20.1:53 - 192.168.20.21:58870 SERVICE_GOOGLE:DNS 0x6e111c73 4p 192.168.20.21:443 - 18.104.22.168:48114 SERVICE_GOOGLE:SSL ...
Note how even the connection is encrypted, our nDPI-based analyzer has been
able to correlate a DNS query immediately followed by a connection to the
address from the DNS response at port
443 as a typical pattern used to
browse web pages, and it has gone the extra mile to tell us that it belongs to
a Google-operated service.
There is one more feature in
snabb wall spy. Passing
--stats will print a
line at the end (in normal mode), or every two seconds (in live mode),
with a summary of the amount of data processed:
aperez@hikari ~/snabb/src % sudo ./snabb wall spy --live --stats eth0 ... === 2016-08-17T18:05:54+0300 === 71866 Bytes, 99 packets, 35933.272 B/s, 49.500 PPS ... === 2016-08-17T18:19:35+0300 === 3105473 Bytes, 2884 packets, 1.599 B/s, 0.001 PPS ...
One last note: even though it is not shown in the examples, scanning and identifying IPv6 traffic is already supported.
Now that traffic analysis and flow identification is working nicely, it has to
be used for actual filtering. I am now in the process of implementing the
firewall component of SnabbWall (
L7fw) as a Snabb application. Also, there
will be a
snabb wall filter subcommand, providing an off-the-shelf L7
filtering solution. Expect a couple more of blog posts about them.
In the meanwhile, if you want to play with
L7Spy, I will be updating
its WIP documentation in the
following days. Happy hacking!